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Publication Nr FBCH119
Author Hand, R. J.; Varner, J.; Nattermann, K.; Müller-Simon, H.
Strength of Glass Basics and Test Procedures - ICG Advanced Course 2006
Publication Year 2006
Page 128
Many applications of glass are predominantly determined by its strength behaviour which depends on the geometry, the stress state and the surface nature of the glass product, but also on the type and duration of the loading.
Glass possesses a high Young’s modulus, which is comparable with that of metals and thus enables the fabrication of products with high rigidity – in contrast to polycarbonate with a much lower Young’s modulus. However, glass - as a brittle-elastic material – is susceptible to fracture and due to its chemical reactivity also to static fatigue.
It is the goal of the ICG Advanced Course to secure the most essential basics of stress formation, crack propagation and statistical evaluation of fracture events and, furthermore, to introduce the relevant methods of stress and strength measurements as well as the fractographic characterisation of fracture surfaces as a means to elucidate failure causes. The Advanced Course addresses employees of the glass industry in the fields of production, processing, application and testing as well as all engineers and scientists who are not experts in this particular topic but look for a sound introduction.
The lecturers of the Advanced Course have long-standing practical experience of solving problems and offering solutions in the field of glass strength and thus fulfil the requirements for an updated and practice-oriented knowledge transfer.
Following the ICG Advanced Course from June 20 (afternoon) until June 21 (noon) 2006, a Hands-On Course (with specimens and microscope practise) is offered on Fractography of Glass by Prof. Dr. J. Varner, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred, NY, also at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in Erlangen.

Stresses and stress measurements in glass
(R. J. Hand)
Stress and strain
Temporary and permanent stresses
Tempered glass
Stresses due to inclusions
Stresses in flat glass
Stresses in container glass
Contact stresses
Measuring residual stresses – photoelasticity

Strength and Fracture Mechanics of Glass
(J. Varner)
Introduction and Overview
Theoretical Strength
Practical Strength
Griffith Equation
Common Methods for Measuring Strength
Fracture Toughness
Relationship Between Strength and Fracture Mechanics
Static Fatigue
Slow Crack Growth

Fracture Statistics
(K. Nattermann)
Statistical Interpretation of Strength Measurements
Elementary Evaluation of Random Samples
Fracture Probability Distributions
Interpretation and Application of Fracture Statistics
Elementary Evaluation of Fracture Statistics
Extrapolation to Small Loads and/or Large Sample Sizes
Notes on the Sample Size
Dependence of Fracture Statistics on the Processing Quality
Handling of Outliers
Fracture Statistical Evaluation of Finite-Element Analyses
Lifetime Estimations
Stress Corrosion and Aging
Determination of the n-Value with the Dynamic Method
Lifetime Estimations Basing in Stress Corrosion
Fitting of Statistical Distributions to Samples
Graphical Procedures
Mathematical Methods for Parameter Estimations
Hypothesis testing
Literature and Further Readings

Strength of container glass
(H. Müller-Simon)
Strength reducing influences and possible counter measures
Melting relics
Influence of forming
Influence of handling
Influence of shape
Residual stresses
Strength Measurements
Internal Pressure Strength
Vertical Load
Impact Strength
Thermal Shock Resistance Test
Measurement of residual stress
Line Simulator
Online Measuring Techniques
Testing of coatings

Fractographic Investigations
(J. Varner)
Introduction and Overview
Definition of Fractography
Fundamentals of Fractography
Information Provided by Fractography
Applications of Fractography
Law of Normal Tension
Fracture Markings
Fracture Origin
Fracture Mirror
Arrest Lines
Wallner Lines
Fracture Markings Produced at Low Velocities (Scarps)
Contact Cracks on the Glass Surface
Impact with Sharp Objects
Impact with Blunt Objects
Quantitative Fractography
Fracture Mirror Constant
Relationship Between Crack Size and Fracture Toughness
General Literature Concerning Fractography
Literature Concerning Quantitative Fractography
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